Fibroid: symptoms, prevention ,treatment and complication

 FIBROID OR UTERINE FIBROID: Everything you need to know about fibroid.

Fibroids are benign tumors (noncancerous) that develop in and around the womb (uterus) consisting of smooth muscle cells and connective fibroid tissue. This noncancerous tumor is known to occur during a female child-producing year. The tumors are classified as leiomyoma and myomas. 

A lot of women are known not to develop any symptoms of fibroid but others experience pain and bleeding during its early stage of development.


Fibroid, also known as uterine fibroid is a growth found in or on the walls of the uterus (womb) of humans. Some individuals develop single fibroids while some others could develop multiple fibroids. Fibroid can be as small as an orange seed or in extreme cases sometimes grow as big as a pumpkin. A fibroid is common mostly in females of age 30 and is usually present till the age of menopause. It shrinks after menopause.

In most cases fibroids are noncancerous, but when a fibroid is cancerous it is called leiomyosarcoma. 


Fibroid are classified into three (3) types based on their location in the uterus, and they are:

  • Intramural Fibroid: This is found inside the muscular wall of the uterus.
  • Subserosal Fibroid: This is found outside the uterus and it’s the most common type of fibroid.
  • Submucosal Fibroid: This type of fibroid develops inside the open space inside the uterus


Some women don’t experience any symptoms of fibroid, still, yet others experience symptoms. some signs and symptoms that are common with fibroid are:

  • Dyspareunia, also known as pain during sexual activity.
  • Polyuria (Frequent urination): This is a condition whereby an individual discharges an abnormally large amount of urine, often accompanied by the need to urinate frequently.
  • Painful period or menstrual pain.
  • Pelvic discomfort or soreness and a feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the pelvic region.
  • Constipation
  • Bleeding between periods.
  • Constant back pain: Back pain is very common among individuals with large fibroid because it presses against the walls of the muscles and back of the lower back.
  • Fertility issues: Fibroid can reduce your chances of conceiving a baby and also might cause difficulty during labor. In cases where a pregnant woman has a very large fibroid doctors recommend delivery by a cesarean method.


Physicians are yet to know the actual causes of fibroid but research and clinical studies carried out show that the following factors are responsible for fibroid.

  • Genetic changes
  • Environmental factors
  •  Estrogen level: Estrogen is the female sex hormone, high estrogen levels tend to aid the development of fibroid, while a lower estrogen level will cause the fibroid to shrink.
  • Obesity and being overweight: They increases your risk of developing fibroid.

Though all of these factors listed above could explicate thoroughly the causes of fibroid.


  • African or African-American descent.
  • If you experienced your first menstruation at a very early age, researchers have found out that ladies who experience their first menstruation before the age of 10 are likely to develop fibroid/
  • If you have never conceived a child or giving birth.
  • Diets: Low vitamin D in your diet. Also, increase consumption of meats and alcohol increases your chance of having Fibroid.
  • Hereditary: If there is a family history of Fibroid. 


The following clinical methods can be used to identify the presence of fibroid in patients.

  • Laparoscopy: This is done by inserting a small tube by an incision in the abdomen to view the uterus and the surroundings
  • Ultrasound scans: This is done by scanning the abdomen with an ultrasound machine. Radiographers create an ultrasound image by scanning through the abdomen or by passing a small ultrasound probe through the vagina.
  • MRI scans: This helps to determine the size and number of fibroids.
  • Hysteroscopy: A small device that has a camera attached to it is inserted through the vagina to view the uterus.

A person with fibroid may feel she is ok because in most cases fibroid does not show any symptoms.  Women who are still in their childbearing years are advised to always go for regular pelvic examination to check for the present or any sign of this tumor.


A fibroid is known to disappear or reduce in size after menopause but If you show any signs and symptoms of fibroid, The treatment will depend solely on your age, the size of the fibroid, location of the fibroid, and if you still want to bear children in future. For women yet to reach menopause but do experience severe pain, the fibroid is monitored then it can be managed with medication and surgery. 

For patients who want to completely get rid of the fibroid a surgical process known as hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) is carried out on the individual. In summary, the type of treatment you will get depends solely on the following factors:

  • The symptoms you have.
  • Your age
  • If you still want to have children in the future
  • If you are pregnant.


Though fibroid complications are rare they may sometimes occur. The following are some of the known complications of fibroid.

  • Development of urinary tract infections—this happens when the fibroid presses on the bladder, making it difficult for you to empty your bladder completely.
  • A bulge and discomfort in the lower abdomen.
  • Pregnancy problems( labor problems, pregnancy loss) this is as a result of the increase in the estrogen level, or infertility in rare cases
  • Anemia: This is a result of heavy blood flow during menstruation which could lead to a significant amount of blood lost from the body.


This blog's content is for educational purposes only and does not represent medical advice; it is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. With any questions you may have about a medical problem, always seek the opinion of a physician or other certified health expert. Call a doctor or 911 if you have a medical emergency.

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